Continuum Education

World Congress

School SDGs

We present a series of audiovisual resources and didactic sequences to bring the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to the school space. Through these materials, students can reflect on economic, environmental and social issues, thinking about their future and their own environment.

1.END OF POVERTY

2. ZERO HUNGER

3. HEALTH AND WELFARE

4. EDUCATION AND QUALITY

5. GENDER EQUALITY

6. CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION

7. AFFORDABLE AND NON-POLLUTANT ENERGY

8. DECENT WORK AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

9. INDUSTRY, INNOVATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE

10. REDUCTION OF INEQUALITIES

11. SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND COMMUNITIES

12. RESPONSIBLE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

13. ACTION FOR THE CLIMATE

14. UNDERWATER LIFE

15. LIFE OF LAND ECOSYSTEMS

16. PEACE, JUSTICE AND SOLID INSTITUTIONS

17. ALLIANCES TO ACHIEVE THE OBJECTIVES

What are the Sustainable Development Goals?

At the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit on September 25, 2015, world leaders adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

The Agenda constitutes an action plan for people, the planet and prosperity, while it seeks to consolidate peace and requires the development of alliances to be assumed in practice. These five cultural spheres of sustainable development are interconnected (see the Sustainable Development wheel).

The 2030 Agenda also includes issues that were not addressed by the MDGs, such as climate change, responsible consumption, innovation and the importance of peace and justice for all.

September 16: Secondary Student Rights Day

On September 16, the << Day of the rights of secondary students >> is commemorated, in homage to a group of secondary students from the city of La Plata, province of Buenos Aires.

What is remembered on September 16 in high schools? What happened that day in 1976? Why is Secondary Student Rights Day commemorated? We propose to address this issue from the episode known as "Pencil Night" and a brief tour of the history of the student movement in our country. We suggest some images, songs and other resources to work in schools.

January 27: International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust

Educational resources linked to an ephemeris of a universal nature.

Educational resources linked to an ephemeris of a universal nature, whose content can be retaken to work also other events (March 17, Memorial Day and Solidarity with the Victims of the Attack against the Israeli Embassy; April 19, Anniversary of the Uprising of the Warsaw Ghetto, or June 12, Anniversary of the birth of Anne Frank) and from the curricular contents of History, Ethical and Citizen Training or Philosophy.

August 4: Ideas for events - Day of Respect for Cultural Diversity

To celebrate the Day of Respect for Cultural Diversity, elementary school students will be proposed to work with the Special "Our America" and with the information from the "Originating Peoples" minisite.

The proposal proposes a possible route to approach the theme of the Day of Respect for Cultural Diversity through materials produced by the portal, Canal Add and Pakapaka. On the other hand, a script is presented to represent the act of said event taking up what is proposed in the work guide.

Education Systems - Continuum Education - World Congress

1. Introduction

The oldest known education systems had two common characteristics; they taught religion and maintained the traditions of the people. In ancient Egypt, temple schools taught not only religion, but also the principles of writing, science, mathematics, and architecture. Similarly, in India most education was in the hands of priests. India was the source of Buddhism, a doctrine that was taught in its institutions to Chinese schoolchildren, and which spread to the countries of the Far East. Education in ancient China focused on philosophy, poetry and religion, in accordance with the teachings of Confucius, Lao-tse and other philosophers. China's system of a civil examination, which began more than 2,000 years ago, has continued into the present century, theoretically allowing for the selection of the best students for important positions in government.

The physical training methods that prevailed in Persia and were highly praised by several Greek writers, became the model for the education systems of ancient Greece, which valued gymnastics as well as mathematics and music.

The Bible and the Talmud are the basic sources of education among the ancient Jews. Thus, the Talmud encouraged Jewish parents to teach their children specific professional skills, swimming and a foreign language. Today, religion still provides the basis for education at home, in the synagogue and in school. The Torah remains the basis of Jewish education.

The education systems in Western countries were based on the religious tradition of the Jews and Christianity. A second tradition derived from the education of ancient Greece, where Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Isocrates were the thinkers who influenced their educational conception. The Greek objective was to prepare young people intellectually to assume leadership positions in the tasks of the state and society. In later centuries, Greek concepts served the development of the arts, the teaching of all branches of philosophy, the cultivation of ideal aesthetics, and the promotion of gymnastic training.

In the Hellenistic period, Greek influences on education were first transmitted through the writings of thinkers such as Plutarch, for whom the role of parents in the education of their children was the most essential point of reference.

Roman education, after an initial period in which the old religious and cultural traditions were followed, opted for the use of Greek teachers for the youth, both in Rome and in Athens. "The Romans considered the teaching of rhetoric and oratory to be fundamental." (1)

Babylon had had Jewish academies for many centuries. Persia and Arabia from the 6th to the 9th century had institutions for research and for the study of science and language; other centres of Muslim culture were established at Al-Qarawiyin University in Fez (Morocco) in 859 and Al-Azhar University in Cairo.

During the Middle Ages, the ideas of scholasticism became established in the educational field in Western Europe. Scholasticism used logic to reconcile Christian theology with the philosophical concepts of Aristotle.

The spirit of education during the Renaissance is well exemplified in the schools established by the Italian educators Vittorino da Filtre and Guarino Veronese in Mantua (1425); in their schools they introduced subjects such as science, history, geography, music and physical education. The success of these initiatives influenced the work of other educators and served as a model for educators for over 400 years. Among other Renaissance personalities who contributed to educational theory were the German humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam, the German educator Johannes Sturm, the French essayist Michel de Montaigne and the Spanish humanist and philosopher Luis Vives. During this period great importance was given to the classical Greek and Roman culture taught in the Latin grammar schools, which, originating in the Middle Ages, became the model of secondary education in Europe until the beginning of the 20th century. The first American universities founded in Santo Domingo (1538), Mexico and Lima (1551) date from this period.

ABBAGNANO, N. Visalberghi, A, "Historia de la Pedagogía", Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico, 1985,p59

The Protestant churches that emerged from the Reformation promoted by Martin Luther at the beginning of the 16th century established schools in which reading, writing, basic notions of arithmetic, the catechism in an elementary grade, and classical culture, Hebrew, mathematics and science were taught in what we could call secondary education. In Switzerland, another branch of Protestantism was created by the French theologian and reformer John Calvin, whose academy in Geneva, established in 1559, was an important educational centre.

"The modern practice of government control of education was designed by Luther, Calvin and other religious leaders and educators of the Reformation. (2)

Catholics also followed the educational ideas of the Renaissance in the schools they already ran or promoted in response to the growing influence of Protestantism, in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation. This synthesis was carried out in the schools of the Society of Jesus, founded by the Spanish religious Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1540, with the approval of Pope Paul III.

The Jesuits, as the members of the congregation are known, promoted a system of schools that has had a preponderant role in the development of Catholic education in many countries since the 16th century: the so-called Ratio Studioron, which would later change the Pious Schools of St. Joseph of Calasanz.

With these changes in the structure of power, scientific knowledge became more and more decisive, and this can be seen more clearly in the 17th century.

Perhaps the most outstanding educator of the 17th century was Jan Komensky, a Protestant bishop of Moravia, better known by the Latin name of Comenio. His work in the field of education led him to receive invitations to teach all over Europe. He wrote an illustrated, widely read book for the teaching of Latin, entitled The Invisible World (1658.) In his Didactica magna (1628-1632) he stressed the value of stimulating the student's interest in educational processes and teaching with multiple references to concrete things rather than to their verbal descriptions.

LUZURRIAGA, Lorenzo, "Historia de la educación y de la pedagogía, "Editorial Losada, Argentina, 1960, p90

Its educational objective could be summarised in one sentence on the home page of Didactica Magna: "To teach through all things to all men."

The efforts of the Decade for the development of universal education earned it the title of 'teacher of nations'.

The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were the ones that closed the stage of consolidation of education that at the time depended on the State, we can only mention that during the seventeenth century the school system was established in Prussia; in Russia formal education began under Peter the Great and his successors; also schools and colleges were developed in colonial America and educational reforms were implemented as a result of the French Revolution. At the end of the century, Sunday schools were founded in England by philanthropist and journalist Robert Ralkes to benefit poor boys and the working classes. During the same period, he introduced the "monitorial" method of teaching, whereby hundreds of boys could learn with a teacher and the help of student monitors or assistants. Both plans opened up the possibility of mass education.

The nineteenth century was the period when national schooling systems were organized in the United Kingdom, in France, in Germany, Italy, Spain (Moyano Law of 1858) and other European countries. The newly independent nations of Latin America, especially Argentina and Uruguay, looked to Europe and the United States for models for their schools. Japan, which had abandoned its traditional isolation and sought to westernise its institutions, took the experiences of several European countries and the United States as a model for the establishment of the modern school and university system.

So far, I have briefly mentioned how education evolved. This synthesis is necessary in order to understand the relationship between State and School, as one can deduce, the metropolis of each era has been the one that directs the destiny of education.

KOMENSKY,JAN; "Didáctica Magna", Porrua, Mexico, 1979, p77

The public school originates at the moment that the consolidation of the State emerges, that is, the absolute monarchies disappear and the republics are established, just as the rulers selected by God have left, others have come to power.

"The proliferation of the national state is clearly one of the main factors behind the growth of the international school system."(4)

With the French Revolution, the archaic political system that the Monarchy and the Church shared collapsed. For the most part, studies could only be recognized by the Church, so education had an elitist structure that provided the most select preparation for the bourgeoisie and clergy of the time. The Catholic Universities did not disappear completely, when the new forms of government were established it was then that the State decided to "certify" the studies and only by it they would be endorsed.

Every stage of change has a critical period, the public schools were consolidated in measures that the division of social classes only existed outside the school. It is then when the State is the provider of education, and provides it in a systematic way. The state systematizes education, but not in its totality, the new structure of education is under a new order necessary for the majority and not for the elites.

The utopia is not so tangible because with the passage of time, education becomes selective and those who are admitted will go. The development of the nation states will always be the key to better education. As we can see, at present the countries of the first world have the economic support to solve the education of their inhabitants, because they founded their development in such a way that the economy was never outdated according to education.

EVERETT Reimer, "Where did schools come from", UPN Basic Anthology, p12

2. Conclusion

The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were the ones that closed the stage of consolidation of education that at the time depended on the State, we can only mention that during the seventeenth century the school system was established in Prussia; in Russia formal education began under Peter the Great and his successors; also schools and colleges were developed in colonial America and educational reforms were implemented as a result of the French Revolution. At the end of the century, Sunday schools were founded in England by philanthropist and journalist Robert Ralkes to benefit poor boys and the working classes. During the same period, he introduced the "monitorial" method of teaching, whereby hundreds of boys could learn with a teacher and the help of student monitors or assistants. Both plans opened up the possibility of mass education.

The nineteenth century was the period when national schooling systems were organized in the United Kingdom, in France, in Germany, Italy, Spain (Moyano Law of 1858) and other European countries. The newly independent nations of Latin America, especially Argentina and Uruguay, looked to Europe and the United States for models for their schools. Japan, which had abandoned its traditional isolation and sought to westernise its institutions, took the experiences of several European countries and the United States as a model for the establishment of the modern school and university system.

So far, I have briefly mentioned how education evolved. This synthesis is necessary in order to understand the relationship between State and School, as one can deduce, the metropolis of each era has been the one that directs the destiny of education.

KOMENSKY,JAN; "Didáctica Magna", Porrua, Mexico, 1979, p77

The public school originates at the moment that the consolidation of the State emerges, that is, the absolute monarchies disappear and the republics are established, just as the rulers selected by God have left, others have come to power.

"The proliferation of the national state is clearly one of the main factors behind the growth of the international school system."(4)

With the French Revolution, the archaic political system that the Monarchy and the Church shared collapsed. For the most part, studies could only be recognized by the Church, so education had an elitist structure that provided the most select preparation for the bourgeoisie and clergy of the time. The Catholic Universities did not disappear completely, when the new forms of government were established it was then that the State decided to "certify" the studies and only by it they would be endorsed.

Every stage of change has a critical period, the public schools were consolidated in measures that the division of social classes only existed outside the school. It is then when the State is the provider of education, and provides it in a systematic way. The state systematizes education, but not in its totality, the new structure of education is under a new order necessary for the majority and not for the elites.

The utopia is not so tangible because with the passage of time, education becomes selective and those who are admitted will go. The development of the nation states will always be the key to better education. As we can see, at present the countries of the first world have the economic support to solve the education of their inhabitants, because they founded their development in such a way that the economy was never out of step with education. We can conclude that education has been in the hands of those who have the power.

Currently, who has the power? As technological development advances in developed and underdeveloped countries,

I observe that cybernetics is taking over education.

It is undeniable that computers are taking over the world, so history tells us that the powerful recognize or validate a study. We might have thought that a degree exam would be taken with synods scattered around the world. In Mexico, in spite of being a developing country, there are universities that offer the titilation so that it is possible to make a career via Internet. Teachers are online and students can connect to their classes from the comfort of their room. An interactive class can be held with the support of technology.

The conclusion of the origin of the public school, in my opinion, has to lie in a prediction of the next stage of the school, since by analyzing the past facts we aim at developing a better future.

At one time it was the Church that provided education, then the State, in the interval between these two stages, the government (of whatever kind) and the Church shared the sharing of education.

Today we can think of a not too distant future where government and technology will provide education.

3. Bibliography